A Database for Insect Neuropeptide Research

Search the database for information about the various species and neuropeptides of interest

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

The following questions are the most frequently asked questions about the database web app. Please click on the questions to view the answers. If you do not find an answer which you are satisfied with or would need more information, please get in touch with us.

How do I cite 'DINeR' ? ?

Please cite DINeR as Yeoh & Pandit*, et al (2017). The full citation is ....

Yeoh, J. G.C. , Pandit, A. A., Zandawala, M., Nässel, D. R., Davies, S.-A.and Dow, J. (2017) DINeR: Database for Insect Neuropeptide Research. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 86, pp. 9-19.(doi:10.1016/j.ibmb.2017.05.001) (PMID:28502574)

View Article

*Please note that both Yeoh and Pandit contributed equally.


Where is (name of species) ?

The website follows the nomenclature proposed by Coast and Schooley (2011), with a few modifications.
For naming of insect species, a five-letter code based upon the combination of the first three letters of the genus and the first two letters of the species name. For example, the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, is abbreviated to Drome. However, a few species have similar abbreviations and require additional letters from their species name to distinguish them. These are:

Abbreviation Species
Spolitto Spodoptera littoralis
Spolitu Spodoptera litura
Dromon Drosophila montana
Dromoj Drosophila mojavensis
Pseser Pseudatomoscelis seriatus
Psesep Pseudaletia separata
Aesmin Aeshna miniscule
Aesmix Aeshna mixta
Cerca Ceratitis capitata
Cercape Ceroplesis capensis

Table 1: Deviations to the five-letter code (Coast and Schooley, 2011) for species identification.


Where is (name of neuropeptide)?

The naming of neuropeptides has been confusing and different names have been assigned to the same neuropeptides. To address this issue, we have adopted the nomenclature of peptides proposed by Coast and Schooley (2011) with a few exceptions.

For more information on the various neuropeptides please click the following : More Info

As certain neuropeptides are present in more than one isoform in a species, Latin numerals are assigned to indicate the presence of multiple forms. For example, the AKH neuropeptides from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, are assigned as Locmi-AKH-I, Locmi-AKH-II and Locmi-AKH-III.


Why are some neuropeptide isoforms given different names when their amino acid sequences are the same ?

The neuropeptide isoforms are given different names because they were identified in different insects. As an example, the CAPA-1 and CAPA-2 sequence is the same in Drosophila melanogaster and D. suzukii, but both are named according to their respective insects (Drome-CAPA-1 and Drome CAPA-2; Drosu-CAPA-1 and Drosu-CAPA-2, respectively) . This would inform us that the CAPA sequences in these two different species have been identified, but have the same amino acid sequence.


In the 'GenBank/ Other reference' column, why do some records provide a journal article reference while others have a link to GenBank?

This column provides a link where you can find additional information about the record. Where available, the GenBank link is provided but some records are not available in GenBank. Thus, the link to the journal article is provided instead.


How can I get the full paper from the ‘Get Reference’ tab?

Most papers are available for free via 'Open Access' through your university or institution. Please contact your librarian for further information.


What are the 'p' and 'amide' suffixes in the neuropeptide isoform information table results ?

Some neuropeptides are modified at their N and C terminal. A 'p' suffix to a Q at the N-terminal indicates that the neuropeptide has a pyroglutamate cap. An 'amide' suffix indicates that the neuropeptide has been amidated (NH2) at the C-terminal.


I am interested in neuropeptides. How can this resource help me?

By searching using the name of the neuropeptide, you would generate a results page which would list a few things. At the top of the page, insect species where the peptide has been described is listed. The next table has information regarding the neuropeptide functions. Any described effect of the neuropeptide on an insect is decribed here. The last table has images relating to the neuropeptide. It will display confocal images of where the neuropeptide binds.
Hopefully, the information provided in the tables would allow you to quickly survey the literature and provide a starting point for you to plan your research.
For more information on how to use the website, please refer to the tutorial.


Do you provide FASTA sequences?

You can access the neuropeptide sequence by clicking on the Get FASTA tab on your results section. If you want FASTA sequences for all related insect species, click on the Get Related Fasta tab.


In the 'Functionality Information' table, what is the 'Species used in study' column ?

This column refers to the insect which a particular assay was carried out on. Many neuropeptides are cross reactive and a peptide isolated from a particular species might trigger a similar effect on another different species. For further information, you should refer to the journal article.


Why are GO terms assigned to a function ?

The Gene Ontology terms are based on the Quick GO EMBL-EBI website (Binns et al, 2009). The GO terms provide a good way to categorize neuropeptide function.


How was the molecular weight calculated ?

The molecular weight of each amino acid sequence was calculated by combining the average amino acid molecular mass and the molar mass of one water molecule to give a total value. Where appropriate, the weight also takes into account any pyroglutamate or amide modifications to the N and C terminal respectively. For sulfakinins, the post-translational modification of sulfate has also been added to the molecular weight.


How can I submit my own sequences ?

If you would like to submit your own Neuropeptide Amino Acid Sequences to DINeR, please get in touch via the Contact Us form and using the Database (DINeR) Enquiry option as the Subject.

Contact Us

N.B. All new data will be reviewed prior to submission to DINeR for public use.


Why are records from non-pterygote hexapod Orders also present in DINeR? ?

Records from organisms in the order Archaeognatha, Collembola, Diplura, Protura, and Zygentoma are present in the database. While they are not in the class Insecta, they are hexapods and are the closest relatives to the insects. Comparisons of neuropeptide sequences from these orders will add to our knowledge of neuropeptide evolution.


When was the database last updated ?

The database is periodically updated with newly available data. You can find out the date of the latest update at the bottom right corner of the Information Search Results Page.