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DINeR

A Database for Insect Neuropeptide Research

Search the database for information about the various species and neuropeptides of interest

Insect Neuropeptides - Eclosion hormone

Introduction

Eclosion hormone (EH) was shown to alter the timing of adult emergence in silkworms (Truman and Riddiford, 1970). This peptide was first isolated and sequenced in Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori (Kataoka et al., 1987; Kono et al., 1987). The first EH gene was cloned and sequenced in M. sexta and later in Drosophila melanogaster (CG5400) (Horodyski et al., 1993, 1989). Insect EHs have six cysteine residues that form three disulfide bridges (Žitňan et al., 2007). The only EH receptor de-orphanized to date is from the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Chang et al., 2009). EH binds to and activates this receptor guanylyl cyclase that is expressed in epitracheal Inka cells.

Location

EH is expressed in two pairs of neurons in the brain of M. sexta and B. mori whereas in D. melanogaster, EH is expressed in a pair of descending neurons in the brain (Copenhaver and Truman, 1986; Horodyski et al., 1993, 1989; Uno et al., 2013).

Function

EH is one of the main peptides involved in ecdysis behavior in insects (Ewer, 2005). EH causes the secondary release of ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH) from Inka cells (Žitňan et al., 2007). In Drosophila, EH is important but not essential for ecdysis as some flies lacking EH are able to undergo ecdysis (McNabb et al., 1997). Hence, EH may also regulate processes other than ecdysis.

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Suggested Reviews

  • Mesce, K.A., Fahrbach, S.E., 2002. Integration of Endocrine Signals That Regulate Insect Ecdysis. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 23, 179–199. doi:10.1006/frne.2002.0228
    View Review
  • Nässel, D.R., Winther, Å.M.E., 2010. Drosophila neuropeptides in regulation of physiology and behavior. Prog. Neurobiol. 92, 42–104. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2010.04.010
    View Review
  • Žitňan, D., Kim, Y.-J., Žitňanová, I., Roller, L., Adams, M.E., 2007. Complex steroid–peptide–receptor cascade controls insect ecdysis. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 153, 88–96. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2007.04.002
    View Review

References

  • Chang, J.-C., Yang, R.-B., Adams, M.E., Lu, K.-H., 2009. Receptor guanylyl cyclases in Inka cells targeted by eclosion hormone. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106, 13371–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812593106
  • Copenhaver, P.F., Truman, J.W., 1986. Identification of the cerebral neurosecretory cells that contain eclosion hormone in the moth Manduca sexta. J. Neurosci. 6, 1738–47.
  • Ewer, J., 2005. Behavioral actions of neuropeptides in invertebrates: Insights from Drosophila. Horm. Behav. 48, 418–429. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2005.05.018
  • Horodyski, F.M., Ewer, J., Riddiford, L.M., Truman, J.W., 1993. Isolation, characterization and expression of the eclosion hormone gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 221–8.
  • Horodyski, F.M., Riddiford, L.M., Truman, J.W., 1989. Isolation and expression of the eclosion hormone gene from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 86, 8123–7.
  • Kataoka, H., Troetschler, R.G., Kramer, S.J., Cesarin, B.J., Schooley, D.A., 1987. Isolation and primary structure of the eclosion hormone of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 146, 746–750. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(87)90592-4
  • Kono, T., Nagasawa, H., Isogai, A., Fugo, H., Suzuki, A., 1987. Amino Acid Sequence of Eclosion Hormone of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori. Agric. Biol. Chem. 51, 2307–2308. doi:10.1080/00021369.1987.10868358
  • McNabb, S.L., Baker, J.D., Agapite, J., Steller, H., Riddiford, L.M., Truman, J.W., 1997. Disruption of a behavioral sequence by targeted death of peptidergic neurons in Drosophila. Neuron 19, 813–23.
  • Nässel, D.R., Winther, Å.M.E., 2010. Drosophila neuropeptides in regulation of physiology and behavior. Prog. Neurobiol. 92, 42–104. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2010.04.010
  • Truman, J.W., Riddiford, L.M., 1970. Neuroendocrine control of ecdysis in silkmoths. Science 167, 1624–6. doi:10.1126/science.167.3925.1624 Uno, T., Sakamoto, K., Isoyama, Y., Hiragaki, S., Uno, Y., Kanamaru, K., Yamagata, H., Takagi, M., Mizoguchi, A., Takeda, M., 2013. Relationship between the expression of Rab family GTPases and neuropeptide hormones in the brain of Bombyx mori. Histochem. Cell Biol. 139, 299–308. doi:10.1007/s00418-012-1021-5
  • Žitňan, D., Kim, Y.-J., Žitňanová, I., Roller, L., Adams, M.E., 2007. Complex steroid–peptide–receptor cascade controls insect ecdysis. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 153, 88–96. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2007.04.002